- Certificats de català - Institut Ramon Llull
- HSK - Hanyu Shuiping Kaoshi. Official test of Mandarin in mainland China, consisting of reading, writing, listening and comprehension
- TOCFL - Test of Chinese as a Foreign Language. Test used in Taiwan for Mandarin as a foreign language.
- IGCSE : Chinese (Mandarin) - Foreign Language (0547)
- Nederlands als Tweede Taal (Dutch as a second language, abbreviated NT2). A two-part examination required in the Netherlands to study at the tertiary level. Part I is less thorough than II. Successful completion gains a NT2-I or NT2-II diploma
- Certificaat Nederlands als vreemde taal (CNavT). A set of six exams, each aimed at confirming proficiency for specific fields. "Profile Tourist and Informal Language Proficiency (PTIT)" is equal to ECF A2, and "Profile Language Proficiency Higher Education" is equal to ECF B2 (both are accepted by most higher level education institutions in Belgium and the Netherlands).
- ECPE Michigan
- Former ELPT - English Language Proficiency Test
- IELTS - International English Language Testing System
- Malaysian University English Test
- PTE Academic - On-line testing
- PTE GeneralA series of six exams from Pearson Language Assessments (formerly known as the London Tests of English)
- STEP EIKEN - Test in Practical English Proficiency (Japan)
- TELC- The European Language Certificates
- TIEC - Test of International English Competency
- TOEFL - Test of English as a Foreign Language
- TOEIC - Test of English for International Communication
- TrackTest - Online English Assessment Center using CEFR scale
- TSE - Test of Spoken English
- Trinity College London ESOL
- TWE - Test of Written English
- UBELT - University of Bath English Language Test
- Cambridge English Language Assessment
- Various, Yleiset kielitutkinnot from Opetushallitus
- TEF - Test d'évaluation du français
- TCF - Test de connaissance du français
- TFI - Test de français international
- DELF - Diplôme d'études en langue française, Levels: A1, A2, B1, B2.
- DALF - Diplôme approfondi de langue française, Levels: C1, C2.
- TELC - The European Language Certificates
- Deutsches Sprachdiplom Stufe I and II - German as a foreign language
- DSH - Deutsche Sprachprüfung für den Hochschulzugang
- TELC - The European Language Certificates
- TestDaF - Test Deutsch als Fremdsprache
- ZD - Zertifikat Deutsch
- ZDfB- Zertifikat Deutsch für den Beruf
- Teastas Eorpach na Gaeilge
According to the Ministero degli Esteri (Italian Foreign Affairs), there are four officials Italian certifications approved CLIQ (Certificato di Lingua Italiana di Qualità): CILS, CELI, PLIDA and .IT ROMA TRE
- CILS (Qualification) - Certificazione di Italiano come Lingua Straniera
- CELI - Certificato di Conoscenza della Lingua Italiana
- PLIDA - Certificazione Progetto Lingua Italiana Dante Alighieri
- .IT ROMA TRE - Certificazione dell'ITaliano come lingua straniera
- TELC - The European Language Certificates
- BJT - Business Japanese Proficiency Test
- EJU - Examination for Japanese University Admission
- JLPT - Japanese Language Proficiency Test
- Kanji kentei - Japanese Kanji Aptitude Test
- KPE - Korean proficiency Exam
- TOPIK - Test of Proficiency in Korean
- KLPT - Korean Language Proficiency Test (cancelled in 2012)
- Norsk Språktest - Folkeuniversitetet:
- Norskprøve 2 for voksne innvandrere - Level A2;
- Norskprøve 3 for voksne innvandrere - Level B1;
- Test i norsk - høyere nivå - Advanced Level (Bergenstesten).
- CELPE-Bras - Brazilian Certificate of Proficiency in Portuguese for Foreigners
- TELC - The European Language Certificates (Portuguese Level B1 only)
- CAPLE - Centre for Evaluation of Portuguese Language (Centro de Avaliação de Português Língua Estrangeira)
- CIPLE - Certificado inicial de português língua estrangeira (Level A2)
- DEPLE - Diploma elementar de português língua estrangeira (Level B1)
- DIPLE - Diploma intermédio de português língua estrangeira (Level B2)
- DAPLE - Diploma avançado de português língua estrangeira (Level C1)
- DUPLE - Diploma universitário de português língua estrangeira (Level C2)
- CELU- Certificado de Español: Lengua y Uso, Certificate of Use of Language in Spanish.
- DELE - Diplomas de Español como Lengua Extranjera. Levels: A1, A2, B1, B2, C1, C2.
- TELC - The European Language Certificates
- OPIc - ACTFL/LTI computerized test of Spanish language proficiency
- Swedex - Swedex consists of three different levels corresponding to the A2, B1 and B2 levels in the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages. It can be taken in examination centres in twenty-five different countries. Swedex tests the skills of the student in five different areas: vocabulary, grammar, listening, writing and reading.
- TISUS - Test in Swedish for University Studies is another certificate, often used as a proof of competence in Swedish to gain access to Swedish universities.
- Stockholm Chamber of Commerce Certificate in Business Swedish
Common European Framework of Reference for Languages
The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment, abbreviated as CEFR, is a guideline used to describe achievements of learners of foreign languages across Europe and, increasingly, in other countries (for example, Colombia and the Philippines). It was put together by the Council of Europe as the main part of the project "Language Learning for European Citizenship" between 1989 and 1996. Its main aim is to provide a method of learning, teaching and assessing which applies to all languages in Europe. In November 2001 a European Union Council Resolution recommended using the CEFR to set up systems of validation of language ability. The six reference levels (see below) are becoming widely accepted as the European standard for grading an individual's language proficiency.
In 1991 the Swiss Federal Authorities held an Intergovernmental Symposium in Rüschlikon, Switzerland, on "Transparency and Coherence in Language Learning in Europe: Objectives, Evaluation, Certification". This symposium found that a common European framework for languages was needed to improve the recognition of language qualifications and help teachers co-operate, eventually leading to improved communication and cooperation among language teachers in Europe.
As a result of the symposium, the Swiss National Science Foundation set up a project to develop levels of proficiency, to lead on to the creation of a "European Language Portfolio" - certification in language ability which can be used across Europe.
A preliminary version of the Manual for Relating Language Examinations to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) was published in 2003. This draft version was piloted in a number of projects, which included linking a single test to the CEFR, linking suites of exams at different levels, and national studies by exam boards and research institutes. Practitioners and academics shared their experiences at a colloquium in Cambridge in 2007 and the pilot case studies and findings were published in Studies in Language Testing (SiLT). The findings from the pilot projects then informed the Manual revision project during 2008/09.
The CEFR adopts an action-oriented approach that, according to Carlos César Jiménez of Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México , can be traced back to theoretical proposals made by philosophers of language such as Ludwig Wittgenstein in the 1950s and sociolinguists such as Dell Hymes. The approach regards language users as social agents who develop general and particular communicative competences while trying to achieve their everyday goals.
The CEFR divides general competences in knowledge (descriptive knowledge), skills, and existential competence with particular communicative competences in linguistic competence, sociolinguistic competence, and pragmatic competence. This division does not exactly match previously well-known notions of communicative competence, but correspondences among them can be made.
General and particular communicative competences are developed by producing or receiving texts in various contexts under various conditions and constraints. These contexts correspond to various sectors of social life that the CEFR calls domains. Four broad domains are distinguished: educational, occupational, public, and personal.
A language user can develop various degrees of competence in each of these domains and to help describe them the CEFR has provided a set of Common Reference Levels.
Common reference levels
The Common European Framework divides learners into three broad divisions that can be divided into six levels:
- (A) Basic User
- (A1) Breakthrough or beginner
- (A2) Waystage or elementary
- (B) Independent User
- (B1) Threshold or intermediate
- (B2) Vantage or upper intermediate
- (C) Proficient User
- (C1) Effective Operational Proficiency or advanced
- (C2) Mastery or proficiency
The CEFR describes what a learner is supposed to be able to do in reading, listening, speaking and writing at each level.
|level group||level group name||level||level name||description|
|A||Basic user||A1||Breakthrough or beginner|
|A2||Waystage or elementary|
|B||Independent User||B1||Threshold or intermediate|
|B2||Vantage or upper intermediate|
|C||Proficient User||C1||Effective Operational Proficiency or advanced|
|C2||Mastery or proficiency|
These descriptors can apply to any of the languages spoken in Europe, and there are translations in many languages.
Deutsche Welle suggests A1 is reached with about 75 hours of German tuition, A2.1 with about 150 hours, A2.2 with about 225 hours, B1.1 with about 300 hours, and B1.2 with about 400 hours
Cambridge ESOL said that each level is reached with the following guided learning hours: A2, 180–200; B1, 350–400; B2, 500–600; C1, 700–800, and C2, 1,000–1,200.
Alliance Française has stated students can expect to reach CEFR levels after the following cumulative hours of instruction: A1 60–100, A2 160–200, B1 360–400, B2 560–650, C1 810–950, C2 1060–1200.
Equivalences of common tests to CEFR levels
Language schools and certificate bodies evaluate their own equivalences against the framework. Differences of estimation have been found to exist, for example, with the same level on the PTE A, TOEFL, and IELTS, and is a cause of debate between test producers.
Equivalence with common North American standards
The following table establishes approximate equivalences between the CEFR and some Canadian and U.S. standards. It is based on the tentative "preliminary alignment tables of other language frameworks with the CEFR" in the report Proposal for a Common Framework of Reference for Languages for Canada by Larry Vandergrift of the University of Ottawa, published by Heritage Canada.
The standards compared are:
- The CEFR itself
- Interagency Language Roundtable Scale (ILR, United States)
- American Council for the Teaching of Foreign Languages Proficiency Guidelines (ACTFL)
- New Brunswick Oral Proficiency Scale (NB OPS, English and French only}
- Canadian Language Benchmarks (CLB, English and French only)
- Public Service Commission of Canada Second Official Language Proficiency Levels (PSC, English and French only)
The resulting correspondence between the ILR and ACTFL scales disagrees with the generally accepted one. The ACTFL standards were developed so that Novice, Intermediate, Advanced and Superior would correspond to 0/0+, 1/1+, 2/2+ and 3/3+, respectively on the ILR scale. Also, the ILR and NB OPS scales do not correspond despite the fact that the latter was modelled on the forme
|Language (ISO 639-3)||Certificate||A1||A2||B1||B2||C1||C2|
|mul||UNIcert||UNIcert I||UNIcert II||UNIcert III||UNIcert IV|
|cat||Catalan Language Certificates||Bàsic-A2||Elemental-B1||Intermedi-B2||Suficiència-C1||Superior-C2|
|cmn||Chinese Hanyu Shuiping Kaoshi (HSK)||HSK Level 1||HSK Level 2||HSK Level 3||HSK Level 4||HSK Level 5||HSK Level 6|
|cmn||Test of Chinese As A Foreign Language (TOCFL) (Taiwan)||TOCFL Level 1||TOCFL Level 2||TOCFL Level 3||TOCFL Level 4||TOCFL Level 5|
|cym||WJEC Defnyddio'r Gymraeg||Mynediad (Entry)||Sylfaen (Foundation)||Canolradd (Intermediate)||-||Uwch (Advanced)||Hyfedredd (Proficiency)|
|cze||Czech Language Certificate Exam (CCE)||CCE-A1||CCE-A2||CCE-B1||CCE-B2||CCE-C1||-|
|dan||Prøve i Dansk (Danish Language Exam)||Prøve i Dansk 1||Prøve i Dansk 2||Prøve i Dansk 3||Studieprøven|
|deu||Goethe-Institut||Start Deutsch 1||Start Deutsch 2||Zertifikat Deutsch||Goethe-Zertifikat B2, ZDfB||Goethe-Zertifikat C1 - Zentrale Mittelstufenprüfung (neu)||Zentrale Oberstufenprüfung, Kleines Deutsches Sprachdiplom|
|deu||TestDaF||TDN 3 — TDN 4||TDN 4 — TDN 5|
|ell||Πιστοποίηση Ελληνομάθειας (Certificate of Attainment in Modern Greek)||Α1 (Στοιχειώδης Γνώση)||Α2 (Βασική Γνώση)||Β1 (Μέτρια Γνώση)||Β2 (Καλή Γνώση)||Γ1 (Πολύ Καλή Γνώση)||Γ2 (Άριστη Γνώση)|
|eng||TrackTest||A1 (Beginner)||A2 (Elementary)||B1 (Pre-Intermediate)||B2 (Intermediate)||C1 (Upper-Intermediate)||C2 (Advanced)|
|eng||IELTS||4.0 to 5.0 (5.0 is borderline between B1 and B2)||5.0 to 6.5 (5.0 is borderline between B1 and B2)||7.0 to 8.0 (8.0 is borderline between C1 and C2)||8.0 to 9.0 (8.0 is borderline between C1 and C2)|
|eng||TOEIC||60 - 105 (listening) 60 - 110 (reading)||110 - 270 (listening) 115 - 270 (reading)||275 - 395 (listening) 275 - 380 (reading)||400 - 485 (listening) 385 - 450 (reading)||490 - 495 (listening) 455 - 495 (reading)|
|eng||TOEFL (IBT)||8-12 (speaking)||13-18 (speaking), 11-16 (writing)||57 to 86||87 to 109||110 to 120||29-30 (reading)|
|eng||TOEFL Junior Standard||225-245 (listening), 210-245 (language form), 210-240 (reading)||250-285 (listening), 250-275 (language form), 245-275 (reading)||290-300 (listening), 280-300 (language form), 280-300 (reading)|
|eng||City and Guilds||Preliminary||Access||Achiever||Communicator||Expert||Mastery|
|eng||NQF (UK Only)||Entry Level||Level 1||Level 2||Level 3||Levels 4-6||Level 7-8|
|eng||Cambridge exam||KET (45 to 59)||PET (45 to 59) / KET Pass with Merit, Pass||FCE (45 to 59) / PET Pass with Merit, Pass / KET Pass with Distinction||CAE (45 to 59) / FCE grade B or C / PET Pass with Distinction||CPE (45 to 59) / CAE grade B or C / FCE grade A||CPE grade A, B or C / CAE grade A|
|eng||PTE General (formerly LTE)||Level A1||Level 1||Level 2||Level 3||Level 4||Level 5|
|eng||Trinity College London Integrated Skills in English (ISE) / Graded Examinations in Spoken English (GESE) / Spoken English for Work (SEW)||GESE 2||ISE 0 GESE 3, 4||ISE I GESE 5, 6 SEW 1||ISE II GESE 7, 8, 9 SEW 2, 3||ISE III GESE 10, 11 SEW 4||ISE IV GESE 12|
|eng||British General Qualifications||Foundation Tier GCSE||Higher Tier GCSE||GCE AS level / lower grade A-level||GCE A-Level (known as A2)|
|eus||IVAP-HAEE||HE 1 - IVAP-HAEE||HE 2 - IVAP-HAEE||HE 3 - IVAP-HAEE||HE 4 - IVAP-HAEE|
|eus||HABE||Lehenengo maila - HABE||Bigarren maila - HABE||Hirugarren maila - HABE||Laugarren maila - HABE|
|eus||EGA||Euskararen Gaitasun Agiria|
|fra||CIEP / Alliance française diplomas||TCF A1 / DELF A1||TCF A2 / DELF A2 / CEFP 1||TCF B1 / DELF B1 / CEFP 2||TCF B2 / DELF B2 / Diplôme de Langue||TCF C1 / DALF C1 / DSLCF||TCF C2 / DALF C2 / DHEF|
|glg||Certificado de lingua galega (CELGA)||CELGA 1||CELGA 2||CELGA 3||CELGA 4||CELGA 5|
|ita||CILS||A1||A2||Uno||Due||Tre||Quattro / DIT C2|
|ita||PLIDA (Dante Alighieri Society diplomas)||PLIDA A1||PLIDA A2||PLIDA B1||PLIDA B2||PLIDA C1||PLIDA C2|
|krn||Test of Proficiency in Korean (TOPIK)||Level 1||Level 2||Level 3||Level 4||Level 5||Level 6|
|nld||CNaVT - Certificaat Nederlands als Vreemde Taal (Certificate of Dutch as Foreign Language)||Profile tourist and informal language proficiency (PTIT)||Profile societal language proficiency (PMT)||Profile professional language proficiency (PPT), Profile language proficiency higher education (PTHO)||Profile academic language proficiency (PAT)|
|nld||Inburgeringsexamen (Integration examination for immigrants from outside the EU)||Pre-examination at embassy of home country||Examination in the Netherlands|
|nld||Staatsexamen Nederlands als tweede taal NT2 (State Examination Dutch as second language NT2)||NT2 programma I||NT2 programma II|
|nor||Norskprøver||Norskprøve 1||Norskprøve 2||Norskprøve 3|
|rus||ТРКИ – Тест по русскому языку как иностранному (TORFL – Test of Russian as a Foreign Language)||ТЭУ Элементарный уровень||ТБУ Базовый уровень||ТРКИ-1 (I Cертификационный уровень) (1st Certificate level)||ТРКИ-2||ТРКИ-3||ТРКИ-4|
|spa||DELE||A1||A2||B1 (formerly "Inicial")||B2 (formerly "Intermedio")||C1||C2 (formerly "Superior")|
|ALTE level||Breakthrough level||Level 1||Level 2||Level 3||Level 4||Level 5|
|ukr||UMI/ULF - Ukrainian as foreign language||UMI 1||UMI 2||UMI 3||UMI 4||UMI 5||UMI 6|
A more recent document by Macdonald and Vandergrift estimates the following correspondences (for oral ability) between the Public Service Commission levels and the CEFR levels:
Other work has addressed correspondence with the ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines and the United States ILR scale specifically. For convenience, the following abbreviations will be used for the ACTFL levels:
- NL/NM/NH — Novice Low/Mid/High
- IL/IM/IH — Intermediate Low/Mid/High
- AL/AM/AH — Advanced Low/Mid/High
- S — Superior
- D — "Distinguished" (a name sometimes used for levels 4 and 4+ of the ILR scale instead of including them within "Superior")
A 2008 statistical study by Alfonso Martínez Baztán of Universidad de Granada based on the performances of a group of subjects determines the following ordering of the ACTFL and CEFR levels, in which higher levels are placed further right.
NL___NM__A1___NH___A2/IL_____IM__B1____IH____B2 _AL____ AM__C1___AH___C2__S_
The following table summarizes the results of Martínez Baztán, the equivalences between CEFR and ACTFL standards proposed in a 2005 paper by Erwin Tschirner of Universität Leipzig (also quoted by Martínez Baztán), and the equivalences of Buitrago (unpublished, 2006) as quoted in Martínez Baztán 2008.
|B2||IM, IH||IH||IM, IH|
|C1||AM, AH||AH||AL, AM, AH|
In a panel discussion at the Osaka University of Foreign Studies, one of the coauthors of the CEFR, Brian North, stated that a "sensible hypothesis" would be for C2 to correspond to "Distinguished," C1 to "Superior," B2 to "Advanced-mid," and B1 to "Intermediate-high" in the ACTFL system.
This agrees with a table published by the American University Center of Provence giving the following correspondences:
|A1||0/0+||NL, NM, NH|
|B2||2/2+||AL, AM, AH|
A study by Buck, Papageorgiou and Platzek addresses the correspondence between the difficulty of test items under the CEFR and ILR standards. The most common ILR levels for items of given CEFR difficulty were as follows:
- Reading — A1: 1, A2: 1, B1: 1+, B2: 2+, C1: 3
- Listening — A1: 0+/1, A2: 1, B1: 1+, B2: 2, C1: 2+ (at least)